Reva Dental Blog

Category Archives: Crowns

Types of Dental Crowns

What is a dental crown?

A dental crown is a tooth-shaped “cap” that is placed over a tooth covering the tooth to restore its shape, size, strength, and to improve its appearance. When the crowns are cemented into place it fully encases the entire visible portion of a tooth that lies at and above the gum line.

Why is a dental crown needed?

At Reva Dental Kilkenny a dental crown is used to do any of the following:

  • To restore an already broken tooth or a tooth that has been severely worn down
  • To protect a weak tooth from breaking or to hold together parts of a cracked tooth
  • To hold a dental bridge in place
  • To cover and support a tooth with a large filling when there isn’t a lot of tooth left
  • To cover a dental implant
  • To cover misshaped or severely discolored teeth

Are there any risks involved?

If tooth decay is right next to the pulp, the pulp may not be strong enough to make healthy dentin. If this happens, the pulp may need to be removed by a dentist or endodontist, or the whole root may have to be removed by an oral surgeon.

Some dental procedures can cause bacteria in the mouth to enter the bloodstream and cause infections in other parts of the body. People who have difficulty fighting off infections may need to take antibiotics before and after dental surgery. Such people include those who:

  • Were born with heart defects.
  • Have damaged or artificial heart valves.
  • Have liver disease (cirrhosis).
  • Have an impaired immune system.
  • Have a history of bacterial endocarditis.
  • Have artificial joints, such as a hip that has been replaced.

How well do dental crowns work?

A crown will work just like a healthy tooth. However, crowns can sometimes come loose over time and may need to be replaced or cemented in again. If the decay is near the centre of the tooth and bacteria invade the pulp, the pulp may die. If this happens, the crown may need to be removed and root canal treatment will be needed to eliminate the bacteria and dead pulp.

What types of crown materials are available?

Permanent crowns can be metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal, resin, or completely ceramic.

All-ceramic or all-porcelain dental crowns provide the best natural color match than any other crown type and may be more suitable for people with metal allergies. However, they are not as strong as porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns and they wear down opposing teeth a little more than metal or resin crowns. All-ceramic crowns are a good choice for front teeth.

Porcelain-fused-to-metal dental crowns can be color matched to your adjacent teeth unlike the metallic crowns. However, more wearing to the opposing teeth occurs with this crown type compared with metal or resin crowns. The crown’s porcelain portion can also chip or break off. Next to all-ceramic crowns, porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns look most like normal teeth. However, sometimes the metal underlying the crown’s porcelain can show through as a dark line, especially at the gum line and even more so if your gums recede. These crowns can be a good choice for front or back teeth.

Metals used in crowns include gold alloy, other alloys (e.g. palladium) or a base-metal alloy (e.g. nickel or chromium). Compared with other crown types, less tooth structure needs to be removed with metal crowns, and tooth wear to opposing teeth is kept to a minimum. Metal crowns withstand biting and chewing forces well and probably last the longest in terms of wear down. Also, they rarely chip or break. The metallic color is the main drawback. Metal crowns are a good choice for out-of-sight molars.

All-resin dental crowns are less expensive than other crown types. However, they wear down over time and are more prone to fractures than porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. We do not offer resin crowns at Reva Dental.

Temporary versus permanent. Temporary crowns can be made in a dental practice whereas permanent crowns are made in a dental laboratory. Temporary crowns are made of acrylic or stainless steel and can be used as a temporary restoration until a permanent crown is constructed by the dental laboratory.

What steps are involved in preparing for a crown?

Preparing a tooth for a crown usually requires two visits. The first step involves examining and preparing the tooth and the second visit involves placement of the permanent crown.

Examining and preparing the tooth. At the first visit, your dentist will take x-rays to check the roots of the tooth receiving the crown and surrounding bone. If the tooth has extensive decay or if there is a risk of infection or injury to the tooth’s pulp, a root canal treatment may first be performed.

Before the process of making your crown has begun, your participating dentist will inject a local anesthetic that will completely numb the teeth, gums, tongue, and skin in that area. Dental sedation may be used to reduce pain and help you relax. Next, the tooth receiving the crown is filed down along the chewing surface and sides to make room for the crown. The amount removed depends on the type of crown used (for instance, all-metal crowns are thinner, requiring less tooth structure removal than all-porcelain or porcelain-fused-to-metal ones). If, on the other hand, a large area of the tooth is missing (due to decay or damage), dentists will often use filling material to “build up” the tooth enough to support the crown.

After reshaping the tooth,  your dentist will use impression paste or putty to make an impression of the tooth to receive the crown. Impressions of the teeth above and below the tooth to receive the dental crown will also be made to make sure that the crown will not affect your bite.

The impressions are sent to a dental laboratory where the crown will be manufactured. The crown is usually returned to your participating dentist in 1 to 2 weeks. If your crown is made of porcelain, your participating dentist will also select the shade that most closely matches the color of the neighboring teeth. During this first visit your dentist will make a temporary crown to cover and protect the prepared tooth while the crown is being made. Temporary crowns usually are made of acrylic and are held in place using temporary cement.

Receiving the permanent dental crown. At your second visit, your dentist will remove your temporary crown and check the fit and color of the permanent crown. If everything is acceptable, a local anesthetic will be used to numb the tooth and the new crown is permanently cemented in place. Your dentist will then have you bite on a piece of carbon paper that will indicate any high spots and reshape and polish the crown to fit the tooth.

What can I expect after treatment?

Your lips and gums may remain numb for a few hours until the anesthetic wears off. Avoid chewing on your numb lip or cheek to avoid injuring your mouth.

How should I care for my temporary dental crown?

Most dentists suggest that a few precautions be taken with your temporary crown.

  • Minimise the use of the side of your mouth with the temporary crown. Shift the bulk of your chewing to the other side of your mouth.
  • Avoid chewing hard foods (e.g. raw vegetables) which could dislodge or break the crown.
  • Avoid sticky and chewy foods (e.g. chewing gum, caramel) which have the potential of grabbing and pulling off the crown.
  • Slide flossing material out-rather than lifting out-when cleaning your teeth. Lifting the floss, out as you normally would, might pull off the temporary crown.

What problems could develop with a dental crown?

Allergic reaction. Because the metals used to make crowns are usually a mixture of metals, an allergic reaction to the metals or porcelain used in crowns is extremely rare.

Discomfort or sensitivity. Your newly crowned tooth may be sensitive immediately after the procedure as the anesthesia begins to wear off. You may experience some hot and cold sensitivity if the tooth that has been crowned still has a nerve in it. Your dentist may recommend that you brush your teeth with a toothpaste designed for sensitive teeth. Pain or sensitivity that occurs when you bite down usually means that the crown is too high on the tooth. Call your dentist if this is the case. He or she can easily fix this problem.

Loose crown. Sometimes the cement washes out from under the crown. Not only does this allow the crown to become loose, it allows bacteria to leak in and cause decay to the tooth that remains. Contact your dentist in the event that your crown feels loose.

Chipped crown. Crowns made of all porcelain can sometimes chip. If the chip is small, a composite resin can be used to repair the chip with the crown remaining in your mouth. The crown may need to be replaced if the chipping is extensive.

Crown that falls off. Sometimes crowns fall off. Usually this is due to an improper fit or a lack of cement. If this happens, clean the crown and the front of your tooth. You can replace the crown temporarily using dental adhesive or temporary tooth cement that is sold in pharmacies for this purpose. Contact your dentist’s office immediately.

Dark line on crowned tooth next to the gum line. A dark line next to the gum line of your crowned tooth is normal, particularly if you have a porcelain-fused-to-metal crown. This dark line is simply the metal of the crown showing through.

What are “onlays” and “3/4 crowns”?

These are variations on the technique of dental crowns. The difference between these crowns and the crowns discussed previously is their coverage of the underlying tooth – the “traditional” crown covers the entire tooth; onlays and 3/4 crowns cover the underlying tooth to a lesser extent.

How long do dental crowns last?

Dental crowns last between 5 and 15 years. The life span of a crown depends on the amount of wear and tear the crown is exposed to, how well you follow good oral hygiene practices, and your personal mouth-related habits (you should avoid such habits as grinding or clenching your teeth, chewing ice, biting your fingernails and using your teeth to open packaging).

Does a crowned tooth require any special care?

While a crowned tooth does not require any special care, remember that simply because a tooth is crowned does not mean the underlying tooth is protected from decay or gum disease. Therefore, continue to follow good oral hygiene practices, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing once a day-especially around the crown area where the gum meets the tooth.

Is there anything else to think about?

It may be less costly and less complicated to have a tooth removed than to have tooth restoration. If the decay is near the pulp and the dentist thinks there is a chance that the pulp will die, tooth removal (extraction) may be recommended and a bridge or implant installed. If the pulp dies after the crown is placed, root canal treatment will be needed to remove the dead pulp.

Call Reva Dental on 056 776 3786 to schedule your appointment. You may be eligible for a free check-up; see www.revadental.ie

Best Celebrity Smile Makeovers

The A-List in Hollywood is filled with beautiful people – and the ‘Hollywood smile’ is famous around the world as an essential facet of red carpet beauty. If you look through magazines you will see regular reference to the best celebrity smile makeovers, showing amazing cosmetic dental work. However while many celebrities have had extensive dental work, many appearing in those lists have only had minor changes made to their teeth.

The important thing to remember is that a good dentist will know what will work: and that in many cases a small change can make a BIG difference. Our dental professionals here at Crescent Dental have taken a look at some well-known celebs to see what kind of work may have transformed their smiles!

cruise

One of the best examples of a celebrity smile makeover is Tom Cruise. In his early career he didn’t exactly have the movie star smile and  by his own admission this came between him and certain film roles. Tom suffered from overcrowding and his teeth were quite badly misaligned. Some basic cleaning procedures, a few veneers and a few months of invisible braces ensure a now bright happy and confident smile. If you suffer from overcrowding, 6 month braces are a fantastic and time-effective option that you should consider to improve your smile.

zacZacEfron is another celeb who has had some wonderful results with cosmetic dentistry. As a teenager he had a gap between his two front teeth, now they are perfectly aligned. He had Invisible braces which helped to pull his teeth together and give him a more ‘adult’ smile. Tooth whitening was also used to help brighten up Zac’s new smile.

 

 

victoriaVictoria Beckham had a fantastic celebrity smile makeover. Her teeth were crooked and she had a gap at the front of her teeth. Victoria looks like she has had some porcelain veneers on her front smile line and some tooth whitening sessions to brighten up her smile.

 

 

georgeGeorge Clooney has always been a big hit with the ladies but his smile was far from perfect many moons ago! A chronic teeth grinding habit (bruxism) left George with tiny stubs for teeth. Porcelain veneers were used to lengthen the teeth that Clooney had ground down and gum-lasering was carried out to expose more of his natural teeth.

 

 

cherylCheryl Cole had quite crooked teeth and she had pointed incisors that were quite fang-like. Her teeth were straightened and the ‘fangs’ were reshaped to give her a more beautiful smile. Whitening was also carried out on her stained teeth and she now has some dazzling white porcelain veneers to give her that perfect Hollywood smile.

For all of the non-celebs among us, teeth cleaning and whitening can dramatically change your smile. Techniques like cosmetic bonding and 6 month braces can really change your whole looks and the costs are a lower than you might expect nowadays as cosmetic dentistry is becoming more common. Talking to a good dentist will help you find the most effective way of getting that perfect smile you are looking for!

5 Things Your Smile Says About You…

Feeling happy? Go ahead and smile — but know that you may be telling others more about yourself than you think.

The meaning of a smile changes depending on the social context, studies show. Some smiles bring benefits, but others reveal hidden weakness. Humans smile more depending on who they’re talking to, and those smiles can hint at their futures.

Without further ado, here are five things your smile tells others about you.

1. Will your marriage last?

Wedded bliss may be linked to an easy grin. According to a study published in 2009 in the journal Motivation and Emotion, the way people smile in old photographs predicts their later success in marriage.

In one study, psychologists rated people’s college yearbook photos for smile intensity (muscle stretching around the mouth and eyes). They found that none of the biggest grinners divorced later in life. In comparison, 25% of the most straight-faced experienced divorce.

A second study of childhood photos of people over age 65 found a similar link. Among those with the biggest smiles in the childhood pictures, 11 percent later experienced divorce, compared with 31 percent of the least smiley.

A bigger smile may reflect a happy-go-lucky approach to life, the researchers reported. Or bigger smiles may attract a happier partner, and lead to a happier relationship.

2. How fertile are you?

A healthy smile can reflect your overall health, multiple studies show. For women, smiles can even reveal fertility.

Women with gum disease take an average of two months longer to conceive than women without, according to research published in 2009 in the US Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Gum disease is linked to an increased risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, respiratory disease and kidney disease. The link appears related to increased inflammation that accompanies gum disease, the researchers found.

3. How much earning power do you have?

A teenager’s grin can predict how much cash he or she will rake in as an adult. According to a study published in 2012 in the journal Proceedings of the US National Academy of Sciences, happy teens earned 10 percent more income than average at age 29, while gloomy adolescents earned 30 percent less than average at that age.

Happiness is likely linked with fewer worries and less stress, study researchers reported. Less worry means more mental space to focus on job-related tasks.

4. How powerful are you?

Smiles aren’t just about happiness. They’re also a sign of social status. A 1998 study in the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin found that high-powered people, as well as people interacting with others of equal power, smiled when they felt happy.

In contrast, people with less social power than the person they were interacting with smiled regardless of their own emotions.

The findings suggest that powerful people have the privilege of smiling when they please, whereas those with less power are obligated to smile in order to ingratiate themselves.

5. How good a fighter are you?

The link between smiles and power holds in the physical realm, as well. In one study, professional mixed martial arts fighters who grinned in photographs taken the day before a match were more likely to lose than fighters who presented a tough mug for the camera.

Fighting is about dominance, and smiles may inadvertently signal that a person is less dominant, hostile or aggressive, researchers reported online Jan. 28, 2013, in the journal Emotion.

Even untrained observers caught on to the message in the smiles, the same study found. People viewed a fighter as more trustworthy and agreeable, but less aggressive and less physically dominant, if they saw him smiling versus posing with a neutral expression.

The takeaway? Smiles grease the social wheels in most situations, and happiness is usually a boon. But if you’re going head-to-head in a contest of dominance, put your game face on.

(via Huffington Post)